Coast Mole_diggin'out.jpg

Class Mammalia

INTRODUCTION:  Encountering wild mammals is common in Shelter Cove.  Residents and visitors alike may see black-tailed deer feeding on the side of a pathway or road, or a fox scurrying along, or chipmunks and squirrels moving around in bushes or trees.  Possibly a California black bear will be sighted in the early morning.  There is also much evidence that mammals live here even if you can't immediately see the animals themselves.  You may find openings to underground burrows or mounds of dirt dug by ground squirrels and moles, respectively, or you can find feces of different size and composition, or footprints, that tell you which species left them. 

Finding and identifying the many different mammals is interesting and fun, but also can be challenging since most mammals avoid humans and will hide or run away before you see them.  When attempting to find and identify mammal species, particularly the more secretive ones, it is helpful if you know some things about their biology.  Their specific habitat requirements are important to consider.  Some species live high up in trees (some may never touch the ground throughout their entire life!).  Others may need bodies of water with the insects or fish that they eat, while some use open areas with grasses, flowers and green plants. If they hibernate in winter or migrate, then you might not find them for several months.  Also, evidence that mammals have been present includes burrows, nests, foot prints, and the type of feces (also called 'scat')!  Regarding the scat, see this and thisOnce you know some of these things, you may find it a bit easier to see different mammals or evidence that they are indeed living here in Shelter Cove! 

The Descriptions and Pictures provided below highlight several of the mammalian species found in and around Shelter Cove, as well as species that may be of interest and which live in California generally.  The Descriptions offer some characteristics and habits of different mammals that can help you to find and identify them.  Also, links to the photo and other sites are provided for further information. 

    

When you go out to find mammals, make sure to have the following information:

1. In what type of habitat will the mammal most likely be found?   (find out below!)

2. Is this the right time (season) of year that they should be present in our region?   (find out below!)

3. What evidence might they leave behind, like particular kinds of scat, burrows, or nests?   (find out below!)   

4. Is there a typical sound to listen for?   (find out below!)

5. Do you know the coloration patterns of males and females?   (find out below!)

6. Bring your binoculars and camera

 

Quick-Links for each mammal listed in the Shelter Cove Wild Animals Guide given here:

Order Insectivora (shrews and moles)

 

Fog Shrew (Sorex sonomae)*: present along the California north coast and Coast Ranges, from western Marin County north to the Oregon border; prefers coastal Douglas fir and redwood forests with damp brushy ground cover or meadow/wetland habitats; burrows and shelters using ground cover and decaying logs; active nocturnally, year-round resident, and shares environment with other shrews (Trowbridge’s Shrew, Vagrant Shrew); feeds on slugs and snails, centipedes, amphibians and insect larvae, sometimes seeds and fungi

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2287&inline=1 (species info)

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2288&inline=1 (range map)

https://static.inaturalist.org/photos/1960472/medium.JPG?1433478775 (pic)

http://cameratrapcodger.blogspot.com/2010/11/bewitching-fog-shrew.html

BACK... to Shelter Cove mammals QUICK-LINKS

Trowbridge’s Shrew (Sorex trowbridgii)*: present along California coast, Coast Ranges, Sierra Nevada and Cascades south to Monterey Bay and north to the Oregon border; not found in California valleys or deserts; prefers mature coniferous forests with well developed understories and ground cover used to develop burrows and runway systems; unlike many other shrews, its distribution is not closely tied to water, suggesting that they may not need to drink to remain hydrated; feed on insects, spiders, centipedes, worms, and sometimes tree seeds; owls, weasels and giant salamanders are predators

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2297&inline=1 (species info)

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2298&inline=1 (range map)

https://www.mammalogy.org/uploads/imagecache/library_image/library/2722.jpg

https://static.inaturalist.org/photos/1978613/medium.JPG?1433819957

Vagrant Shrew (Sorex vagrans)*: present along California coast, Coast Ranges, Sierra Nevada and Cascades south to Santa Barbara County and north to the Oregon border; not found in California valleys or deserts and typically tied to moist habitats and water; prefers foothill to mountain riparian and wet meadow habitats, grasslands and fresh and saline wetlands, from sea level up to 12,000 feet (3750 m) elevation; typically nocturnally active, in dense ground cover and leaf litter habitats, using vole runways to move around; feeds mainly on invertebrates including insects, snails, slugs, worms, spiders, and sometimes seeds, young plant shoots and roots; as compared with the Trowbridge’s Shrew and Coast Mole, the Vagrant Shrew will more likely be found in open grassy areas; predators include owls

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2283&inline=1 (species info)

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2284&inline=1 (range map)

https://www.mammalogy.org/uploads/imagecache/library_image/library/2724.jpg

http://linnet.geog.ubc.ca/efauna/photoGallery/ShowImage.aspx?index=37365&size=StandardPhoto

Marsh Shrew/Pacific Water Shrew (Sorex bendirii)*: present along the California coast and Coast Ranges from Sonoma County north to British Columbia; usually found in marshy areas/freshwater wetlands, and during winter rains may frequent moist forests up to 3300 feet (1000 m) from water; feeds on earthworms, sowbugs, spiders, centipedes, termites and other invertebrates; forages above water as well as underneath water where it swims and probes with its snout and whiskers; active nocturnally, under logs and other cover

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2295&inline=1 (species info)

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2296&inline=1 (range map)

http://linnet.geog.ubc.ca/efauna/Images/mammal/Big/Sorex%20bendirii1.jpg

http://www.sccp.ca/sites/default/files/styles/species_large/public/species/images/pws%20denis%20knopp%202011.JPG?itok=_BhTp9IP

Moles (Scapanus spp. &  Neurotrichus spp.):

Coast Mole.jpg
 

Coast (“Pacific”) Mole (Scapanus orarius)*:  present along the California coast and Coast Ranges from Mendocino County north through the Oregon border; prefers wet meadow, grasslands, mountain riparian, and redwood, Douglas fir, mixed conifer, and mountain hardwood-conifer forests; prefers forest to a greater extent than Townsend’s Mole; active year-round at any time of day, appears more active in winter, when soil is wet and loose; almost entirely subterranean (like most moles) using a system of shallow burrows; forages just below the surface and mostly feeds on earthworms, insects, centipeded and millipedes, snails and slugs; predators includes owls, rubber boas, and cats

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2307&inline=1 (species info)

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2308&inline=1 (range map)

https://www.mammalogy.org/uploads/imagecache/library_image/library/346.jpg

http://linnet.geog.ubc.ca/efauna/Images/mammal/Scapanus%20orarius1.jpg

https://www.worldlifeexpectancy.com/mammal-life-expectancy-coast-mole

BACK... to Shelter Cove mammals QUICK-LINKS

Broad-footed (“Broad-handed”) Mole (Scapanus latimanus)*: broadly found across northern California, south through the California coast, Coast Ranges, and Sierra Nevada up to 9800 feet (3000 m) elevations, excluding the hot deserts and central valley areas; preferred habitat include grasslands, pasture, riparian and aspen habitats, but also found in wet meadow and open forest habitats; needs soil that allows burrowing (friable, moist but not flooded) and is mostly subterranean, uses a tunnel system; typically feeds just below the ground surface by burrowing, detects vibrations of prey in the soil –eats earthworms, insects, spiders, centipedes, and some plant materials; predators include owls

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2309&inline=1 (species info)

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2310&inline=1 (range map)

http://nathistoc.bio.uci.edu/mammals/Insectivora/IMG_0105b.jpg

https://www.santacruzmuseum.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/mole-815x1024.jpg

Townsend’s Mole (Scapanus townsendii)*: found in the moist north coast forests from Oregon border to Humboldt County just north of Punta Gorda, so it is unlikely to exist in the King Range and Shelter Cove areas (where Coast Mole will be found); prefers grassland, wet meadow and mixed conifer forest with well-drained soil that supports underground burrow systems; leaves mounds of fresh dirt; feeds preferentially on earthworms, but also on insects, snails, slugs, leaves and roots; predators include barn owls, rubber boas, weasels and skunks

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2305&inline=1 (species info)

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2306&inline=1 (range map)

https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/eccc/migration/sara/CCDE984C-6790-43C1-B658-D69E45F4EF74/fig00.jpg

https://www.registrelep-sararegistry.gc.ca/0C739C28-9BED-41D6-9D91-D7DB203336CD/X-2009112709514775027.gif

http://www.sccp.ca/sites/default/files/styles/species_large/public/species/images/townsend's%20Mole.jpg?itok=dG7VBrm1

Shrew Mole (Neurotrichus gibbsii)*: present in northern California forests from the Oregon border south to Monterey County, with additional populations in Shasta and Plumas Counties; prefer Douglas Fir, redwood, mixed-conifer and riparian habitats with dense, moist understory; prefers forest habitats to a greater extent than other moles; generally found below 800 feet (250 m) elevation; uses shallow burrows, moist undercover and logs for shelter, and forages fore earthworms, insects, other invertebrates, and small amounts of vegetation; active year-long, both nocturnal and diurnal; predators include owls, giant salamanders, and rubber boa

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2303&inline=1 (species info)

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2304&inline=1 (range map)

https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/imgs/512x768/8235_3181/2553/0039.jpeg

https://www.mammalogy.org/uploads/imagecache/library_image/library/727.jpg

https://www.nps.gov/mora/learn/nature/images/Shrew-Mole_ISF06867_crp_sml.jpeg

Order Chiroptera (bats) 

    Many bats use sonar and echolocation to locate prey like flying insects!

 

Big Brown Bat (Eptesicus fuscus)*: widespread, abundant species found throughout California and all of its diverse habitats, except hot desert or highest alpine meadows and slopes; roosts (resting on a perch) primarily in cracks in caves, trees, and human-made structures; forages over open areas, water, and less dense forest, capturing on a variety of flying insects (preferably scarab beetles); foraging flight is slow, straight, and steady, using up to 12” wingspans (thus the “Big” in its name!); activity is nocturnal from dusk to full darkness; hibernates in winter, surviving on stored fat (up to 30% of body weight); may carry rabies; predators include snakes, owls and hawks

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2337&inline=1 (species info)

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2338&inline=1 (range map)

https://cmns.umd.edu/sites/default/files/images/news/flying_bat_0.jpg

https://fw.ky.gov/Wildlife/PublishingImages/bigbrownbatlarge1.jpg

https://www.exploringnature.org/graphics/mammals/bat_big_brown_diagram.jpg

https://idfg.idaho.gov/species/sites/default/files/taxa/22652_orig_0.jpg

BACK... to Shelter Cove mammals QUICK-LINKS

Silver-haired Bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans)*: present in coastal and mountain forests from Oregon border south to Monterey County and along the Sierra Nevada to Inyo County; when migrating (in spring to summer feeding areas and in fall to hibernation locations), may be found anywhere in California; summer habitats include coniferous forests, foothill woodlands and mountain riparian, generally below 9000 feet (2750 m) elevation; most active in dusk, feeding on moths (classified as a “moth strategist” using echolocation to find and capture moths) as well as other soft-bodied insects;  foraging flight is slow and fluttery with short glides over water and open brushy areas; although populations of Big Brown Bats are numerically superior, Silver-haired Bats are typically active later, avoiding competition for prey; roost in hollow trees, rock crevices, caves and under bark; predators include owls and skunks

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2333&inline=1 (species info)

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2334&inline=1 (range map)

https://www.nps.gov/labe/learn/nature/images/California_Myotis_BCI-resized_1.jpg

https://www.cedarcreek.umn.edu/mammals/midsize/lasionycteris-noctivagans.jpg

California myotis (Myotis californicus)*: widespread, common species found throughout California and all of its diverse habitats, including hot desert and mountain forests up to 6000 feet (1875 m) in elevation; a crevice-roosting species that changes roosting locations commonly, often choosing nearest available sites after feeding; feeds on a variety of flying insects; foraging flight is slow and highly maneuverable, flying low over ground or water, or among shrubs and trees; activity is nocturnal, but is reduced in winter and by heavy precipitation or strong winds; most hibernate, emerging on warm days to forage; predators include owls, snakes, and small mammals; may carry rabies

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2329&inline=1 (species info)

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2330&inline=1 (range map)

https://www.exploringnature.org/graphics/color_diagram/Bat_california_myotis72.jpg

http://www.batsoftexas.com/images/species/Myotis-californicus.jpg

https://www.nps.gov/labe/learn/nature/images/California_Myotis_BCI-resized_1.jpg

Long-eared Myotis (Myotis evotis)*: widespread in California but generally not common over most of its range; avoids hot deserts and arid central valley; found from sea level to 9000 feet (2700 m) elevation, preferring coniferous woodlands and forest; roosts in caves, buildings, crevices, under bark and in snags; nocturnal, later in evening than in other bats in its range; forages along habitat edges and in open land and water, catching in prey in flight; eat more beetles than other bats, but also eat moths, flies and spiders; foraging flight is slow and maneuverable and they can hover; hibernate in winter

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2323&inline=1 (species info)

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2324&inline=1 (range map)

https://wdfw.wa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/page_body_half_width/public/2019-04/western%20long%20eared%20bat_BCI.jpg?itok=brIfwpzy

https://gf.nd.gov/sites/default/files/styles/mobile_small/public/2016-09/long-eared-myotis-header.jpg?itok=vIRfjppF

https://climbersforbats.colostate.edu/sites/default/files/Myotis%20evotis%20side.JPG

Little Brown Bat flying.jpg

Little Brown Bat (Myotis lucifugus)*: present from the Oregon border south along the coast and Coast Range to Monterey County and south through the Sierra Nevada, but otherwise not present the central valley or in central and southern California; fairly common throughout its range, and abundant in some areas particularly in sagebrush and desert scrub, meadows and chaparral; least common in coastal scrub, grasslands, redwood and foothill woodlands (thus it is less likely to see them in Shelter Cove and King Range); populations appear to be limited by availability of roost sites, but they are quick to find new sites; nocturnal with peaks in activity 2.5 hour after dusk and before dawn; prefers to forage over water or open habitats, catching small flying insects using echolocation; flight is maneuverable; migrate to winter hibernation sites which may be located up to several hundred kilometers away; aggregations of up to 300,000 individuals have been observed; predators include birds, snakes, and small carnivorous mammals; note: some populations have seen severe declines, possibly related to pesticide contamination in the environment

 

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2315&inline=1 (species info)

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2316&inline=1 (range map)

https://www.psu.edu/dept/nkbiology/naturetrail/speciespages/speciespics/little_brown_bat.jpg

https://dnr.maryland.gov/wildlife/PublishingImages/littlebrown.jpg

Fringed Myotis (Myotis thysanodes)*: present throughout California, except in the arid central valley and dry southeast California desert habitats; abundance appears to be irregular throughout its range, but may be common in several locales; occurs in a wide variety of more open habitats from sea level to 9350 feet (2850 m) elevation, most commonly at 4000-7000 feet (1300-2200 m) in pinyon-juniper, foothill hardwood, and hardwood-conifer habitats; roosts in caves, crevices, and human structures; active nocturnally early after sunset; feed mostly on beetles and also on moths and spiders; slow, maneuverable flight, and capable of hovering, but also may be found on ground foraging among foliage; hibernation in winter; predators include snakes and owls

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2325&inline=1 (species info)

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2326&inline=1 (range map)

http://beavercreek.nau.edu/Animal%20and%20Plant%20pages/species%20images/Mammals/Myotis%20T.jpg

http://bryantsweb.com/wild/img/FringedMyotis2.jpg

Long-legged Myotis.jpg

Long-legged Myotis (Myotis volans)*: common in California through the Coast Ranges from Oregon to Mexico, Cascade/Sierra Nevada ranges to southern California and in desert mountain ranges; prefers woodland and forest habitats above 4000 feet (1200 m) elevation, while uncommon in desert and arid grassland habitats; trees are most important day roosts, while caves and mines are used as night roosts; active nocturnally, foraging on flying insects, primarily moths; capable of detecting prey at a long distance (30 feet), their flight is strong, direct (not very maneuverable) as they capture their prey, typically over water and open habitats

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2327&inline=1 (species info)

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2328&inline=1 (range map)

http://beavercreek.nau.edu/Animal%20and%20Plant%20pages/species%20images/Bats/Myotis%20Vo.jpg

https://gf.nd.gov/gnf/conservation/images/species/tmb-long-legged-bat.jpg

Yuma Myotis (Myotis yumanensis)*: widespread and common across California, except for the dry desert habitats of southeastern California; wide variety of habitats are used between sea level to above 8000 feet (2560 m) elevation, preferably open forest and woodlands with sources of water over which to forage; roosting in caves, crevices and human structures; feeds on a wide variety of small flying insects, detected by echolocation and caught mid-air; active nocturnally, early after sunset; difficult to distinguish this species from Little Brown Bat (M. lucifugus)

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2319&inline=1 (species info)

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2320&inline=1 (range map)

https://www.nps.gov/labe/learn/nature/images/Yuma_Myotis_BCI-resized_1.jpg

https://steamboatisland.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/Yuma-myotis.jpg

Townsend’s Big-eared Bat (Corynorhinus townsendii)*: once considered common in California, now considered uncommon, but it has a wide distribution across all habitats except alpine; principally forages for small moths, but also other insects and beetles, using echolocation during slow, maneuverable flight or with hovering; nocturnally active; roosting sites are a limiting resource for this species –they will use caves or human structures; migrate relatively short distances, less than 20 miles (32 km), to hibernate in winter; note: this species is extremely sensitive to disturbance of roosting sites, with a single disturbance leading to abandonment –all known nursery colonies in limestone caves in California have been abandoned; numbers in California have strongly declined and they are a California Species of Special Concern

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2347&inline=1 (species info)

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2348&inline=1 (range map)

https://www.nps.gov/chis/learn/nature/images/960-Corynorhinus-townsendii-BUS-f_1.jpg

https://www.doi.gov/sites/doi.gov/files/uploads/townsendsbigearedbatannfroschauerusfws.jpg

Pallid Bat.jpg
 

Pallid Bat (Antrozous pallidus)*: common yearlong resident of low elevations across California, with a wide range of habitats including grasslands, shrublands, woodlands, and forests from sea level up through mixed conifer forests; most commonly seen in open, dry habitats with rocky areas for roosting; nocturnal, with activity during 90-190 minutes after sunset and shortly before dawn; small home range --doesn’t travel more than a few miles from day roost; hibernates in winter near the summer day roost area; hibernates in roosts of 20-160 individuals, in clusters where young individuals are in the warmer center; forages over open ground, more often taking prey from the ground, including beetles, flies, moths, spiders, scorpions and crickets; stout skull and teeth allow taking of large, hard-shelled prey; uses echolocation mainly for avoidance of obstacles while flying; has slow flight with frequent dips, swoops and short glides; day roosting occurs in caves, crevices, hollow trees, and human structures

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2349&inline=1 (species info)

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2350&inline=1 (range map)

http://norcalbats.org/2017/12/01/pallid-bat/ (pic)*

https://news.ucsc.edu/2013/03/images/pallid-bat-350.jpg

http://bioweb.uwlax.edu/bio203/f2013/korte_lydi/Photo%203.jpg 

BACK... to Shelter Cove mammals QUICK-LINKS

Hoary Bat.jpg

Hoary Bat (Aeorestes cinereus)*: most widespread North American bat, found across most of California except the southeastern deserts; during winter, found along the coast and in southern California, while in warmer months they are found in woodlands and forests ranging from sea level to 13,200 feet (4125 m) elevations; migrations between summer and winter ranges can be over long distances; individuals wintering in cold locations hibernate but may still show some activity on warmer days; generally roost in trees in dense foliage; nocturnal, typically most active later at night, 3-5 hours after sunset; moth specialist, but will eat other flying insects, using a fast and straight flight combined with echolocation; relatively high rate of rabies

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2341&inline=1 (species info)

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2342&inline=1 (range map)

https://fw.ky.gov/Wildlife/PublishingImages/hoarybat2.jpg

http://fwp.mt.gov/mtoutdoors/images/Portraits/2014/hoarybat.jpg

Brazilian Free-tailed Bat (Tadarida brasiliensis)*: present throughout California, but less common in the north coastal region (including Humboldt County) and high Sierra Nevada; largest colony is in Lava Beds National Monument in Modoc County (NE corner of state); diverse habitats used, from grassland to woodland and forest; as the name implies, it has a little tail; uses echolocation to hunt for small flying insects, primarily small moths; nocturnal activity shortly after dusk, forages high above ground, typically over 100 feet (30 m); fast flyers, averaging 25 miles per hour when travelling to and from roosting sites (up to 99 mph top speed!); uses caves, crevices, and human structures for both roosting and hibernation; some carry rabies

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2351&inline=1 (species info)

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2352&inline=1 (range map)

https://www.exploringnature.org/graphics/mammals/Bat_Mexican_free-tailed_diagram72.jpg

http://museum2.utep.edu/chih/theland/animals/mammals/tadabras.jpg

The Species Descriptions below will be updated soon

...follow the links below to learn more on mammals!!

NOTE: under development

Order Lagomorpha (rabbits & hares)

 
Brush Rabbit.jpg
 
Black-tailed Jack Rabbit.jpeg

Order Rodentia  (rodents)

Northern Flying Squirrel-upright.jpeg

Northern Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus)*: More recently Humboldt’s Flying Squirrel (see next description) is considered its own distinct species     

        

https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-U_vENuS-nC4/T2MhS1YPuZI/AAAAAAAAAuM/3pJIfUcABcc/s1600/nflying_squirrel.jpg

https://www.nps.gov/mora/learn/nature/images/NrthnFlyingSquirrel_0051_crp_cc.jpeg

 

Humboldt’s Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys oregonensis)**: 

Jumps and glides from tree to tree

https://inaturalist.ca/taxa/553059-Glaucomys-oregonensis (pic)*

https://www.careerride.com/mchoice/new-species-of-flying-squirrel-discovered-30257.aspx

BACK... to Shelter Cove mammals QUICK-LINKS

 

Alien:

Eastern Gray Squirrel (S. carolinensis):

http://www.vannattabros.com/12-06/squirrel-1.jpg

California (“Beechey”) Ground Squirrel (Otospermophilus beecheyi)*:  Genus used to be Spermophilus

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2418&inline=1 (range map)

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2417&inline=1 (species info)

https://copr.nrs.ucsb.edu/natural-resources/mammals/california-ground-squirrel

BACK... to Shelter Cove mammals QUICK-LINKS

 

Golden-mantled Ground Squirrel (Callospermophilus lateralis): black-bordered white stripe down each side; not a coastal species…in Sierra Nevada Mountains

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2424&inline=1 (range map)

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2423&inline=1 (species info)

https://www.arizonahighways.com/sites/default/files/styles/kids_feature_image/public/0913_goldenmantelsquirrel_0.jpg?itok=p7jmuYqT

Yellow-cheeked Chipmunk (Neotamias ochrogenys or Tamias ochrogenys):    also known as "Redwood Chipmunk"

Only lives along Sonoma, Mendocino, Humboldt coastal forests, hard to see but you may hear its shrill double-syllable, low-pitched “chuck-chuck”

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2386&inline=1 (range map)

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2385&inline=1 (species info)

https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/46221-Tamias-ochrogenys

https://faculty.ucr.edu/~chappell/INW/mammals/YPchipmunk81.jpg

BACK... to Shelter Cove mammals QUICK-LINKS

 
 

Northern Pocket Gopher (Thomomys talpoides)**:   not in coast range or coast, more present east of Sierra Nevada Mountains

https://i.redd.it/pppo9fhdxka21.jpg

California Kangaroo Rat (Dipodomys californicus): yes-jumps like a kangaroo; not present along north coast

https://pbs.twimg.com/media/CPw9l6lUwAAyCcO.jpg

VOLES:

White-footed Vole (Arborimus albipes)*: rare and hard to catch, semi-arboreal preferably in red alder trees of the northwest coast; research on this species at Humboldt State University by Dr. Tim Bean

https://wildlife.ca.gov/Portals/0/Images/Science_institute/WFVole-face_Shane%20Brown-LR.jpg?ver=2017-02-14-163429-923

Sonoma Tree Vole (Arborimus pomo)*: also called California red tree mouse, lives primarily in Northcoast California old-growth Douglas Fir forests, studied by HSU Professor Stephen Sillett, Inst. Redwood Ecology; more or less restricted to fog belt; hard to find, since they are in trees

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2534&inline=1 (range map)

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2534&inline=1 (species info)

https://www.yournec.org/creature-feature-sonoma-tree-vole/

https://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/pubs/pnw_gtr948.pdf

Oregon Red Tree Vole (Arborimus longicaudus)*: live up in Douglas Fir trees, eat needles, often spend their life in one tree

https://eugeneweekly.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/Red_tree_vole_Stephen_DeStefano_USGS_FPWC.jpg

https://www.oregonconservationstrategy.org/media/Red-Tree-Vole-Michael-Durham.jpg

Western Red-backed Vole (Myodes californicus)*:    

   [Clethrionomys californicus], reddish stripe on back, lives mainly in coniferous forests

https://classconnection.s3.amazonaws.com/16/flashcards/4361016/jpg/westernredbackedvole-142C0B228901A06C3C8.jpg

Long-tailed Vole (Microtus longicaudus)*: widely distributed, often near streams, common in disturbed habitat

https://www.naturebob.com/zenphoto/cache/mammals/voles-mice-and-shrews/long-tailed-vole-2_595.jpg

Creeping Vole (Microtus oregoni)*: Humboldt is southern part of range

 

​​https://a4.pbase.com/g3/62/942562/2/121208925.yfXswZ6I.jpg

Townsend’s Vole (Microtus townsendii)*:  ppp

 

https://deltafarmland.ca/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/glsa-vole1.jpg

Muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus)*: likes wetlands, spend a lot of time in water, semi-webbed hind feet

https://www.ducks.ca/assets/2017/06/20150213_muskrat_ZZA_6470.jpg

 

Dusky-footed Woodrat (Neotoma fuscipes)*: prefer dense ground cover (chaparral, juniper, mixed conifer forest)

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2524&inline=1 (range map)

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2523&inline=1 (species info)

https://openspacetrust.org/blog/woodrats/ (pic)

https://openspacetrust.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/dusky-footed-woodrat_nest_POST-1.jpg

BACK... to Shelter Cove mammals QUICK-LINKS

Bushy-tailed Woodrat (Neotoma fuscipes)*:   ppp

https://bisonquest.files.wordpress.com/2009/09/sept09-055.jpg

Deer Mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus)*: common and broadly distributed across North America

https://ucanr.edu/blogs/Green/blogfiles/12418_original.jpg

Western Harvest Mouse (Reithrodontomys megalotis)*: common and broadly distributed

 

North American Porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum)*:   ppp

 

http://nhptv.org/wild/images/porcupine3.jpg

House Mouse.jpg

Black Rat (Rattus rattus):   ppp

​​​

https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/imgs/512x768/0000_0000/0704/0067.jpeg

Order Carnivora  (carnivores)

 

Coyote (Canis latrans)*:   ppp

http://naturemappingfoundation.org/natmap/ca/facts/mammals/coyote.html (pic)

BACK... to Shelter Cove mammals QUICK-LINKS

Gray Wolf (Canis lupis): extirpated in 1924, but two packs now in Lassen County (2017) and evidence of wolf in Modoc County

https://www.indybay.org/newsitems/2016/01/07/18781603.php  1-7-2016 article: New Wolf Detected in California's Modoc County

https://www.indybay.org/uploads/2016/01/07/or_25_california_gray_wolf_oregon_imnaha_pack.jpg  (pic)

 
 

Grizzly Bear (Ursus arctos californicus): not found in California, .extirpated 1931

https://www.nps.gov/katm/planyourvisit/images/Standing-Bear-460_2YOfemale_092903_1-225-px.jpg

 

Racoon (Procyon lotor)*: you might see them around houses when it is dark outside, looking through trash for human food

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2584&inline=1 (range map)

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2583&inline=1 (species info)

http://www.raccoonremovalexperts.ca/images/raccoon1.jpg

BACK... to Shelter Cove mammals QUICK-LINKS

Humboldt Marten.png

Humboldt Marten (Mares americana humboldtensis)*: is a subspecies of American Pine Martin (M. americana) and is endangered (only a few hundred remaining) apparently due to trapping allowed in Oregon and habitat loss from marijuana farming, Humboldt County is southwestern part of its range

https://oregonwild.org/wildlife/coastal-humboldt-marten (pic)

https://clearcreekcounty.org/marten/ (pic)

https://abizinaboxcannabis.com/humboldt-marten-review/ (pic)

Stoat or Short-tailed Weasel (Mustela erminea)*: Humboldt is southern part of its range

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/44/Mustela.erminea.jpg

https://static.inaturalist.org/photos/22689376/medium.jpg?1545844257

 

Northern River Otter (Lontra canadensis): semiaquatic, eats various fish, salamanders, frogs, snails, turtles, burrows are close to water’s edge both freshwater and marine shores

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2604&inline=1 (range map)

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2603&inline=1 (species info)

https://www.northcoastjournal.com/humboldt/wild/Content?oid=13172159 (pic)

https://www.northcoastjournal.com/humboldt/otter-spotter/Content?oid=2516458

 
 

Order Artiodactyla (Deer and Elk):

 

Black-tailed Deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus)*: a mule deer subspecies commonly seen throughout Shelter Cove region; characterized by black hair on top of tail

https://kymkemp.com/2020/08/04/disease-outbreak-strikes-california-deer-herds/ (pic)

https://californiaglobe.com/section-2/californias-three-fish-and-wildlife-entities-whats-the-difference/ (pic)

https://sciencing.com/kind-deer-live-northern-california-8773100.html (pic)

BACK... to Shelter Cove mammals QUICK-LINKS

 

Roosevelt Elk (Cervus elaphus roosevelti)*: have been known to visit Shelter Cove! (but don't count on it); more likely to see them if you visit the Sinkyone State Wilderness, south of Shelter Cove

https://www.northcoastjournal.com/NewsBlog/archives/animals/?page=2&topic=2330479 (pic)

https://www.nps.gov/redw/learn/nature/roosevelt-elk.htm (pic)

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Roosevelt_elk.jpg (pic)

BACK... to Shelter Cove mammals QUICK-LINKS

Order Didelmorpha (oppossums)

Alien species

Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana): introduced into San Jose in 1910 and now commonly found in a variety of moist woodlands and brushy habitats, mostly at low elevations, including along the entire California coast; less common in dense conifer forests, and not seen in Sierra Nevada or higher elevations; an opportunistic feeder, with diet ranging from fruits to berries to green vegetation to earthworms; solitary and often “plays dead” when it feels threatened, but can be aggressive; yearlong activity that may be reduced in cold of winter; nocturnal.

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2279&inline=1 (species info)

https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=2280&inline=1 (range map)

https://ohiodnr.gov/wps/portal/gov/odnr/discover-and-learn/safety-conservation/about-ODNR/wildlife

https://www.pugetsound.edu/files/pages/virginia-opossum-a3848a.jpg

FINAL%20rectangle%20PCEC%20logo%20%5B2%5
scarf%20logo_edited.jpg